The ones removed are considered not Authentic Cannon!
That is an opinion that has variations world-wide.
The following are listed most(Google):
· 1 Esdras (Vulgate 3 Esdras)
· 2 Esdras (Vulgate 4 Esdras)
· Judith ("Judeth" in Geneva)
· Rest of Esther (Vulgate Esther 10:4 – 16:24)
· Ecclesiasticus (also known as Sirach)
· Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy ("Jeremiah" in Geneva) (all part of Vulgate Baruch)
· The Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan (The First and Second Book of Adam and Eve)
· The Secrets of Enoch (also known as the Slavonic Enoch or Second Enoch)
· The Psalms of Solomon.
· The Odes of Solomon.
· The Letter of Aristeas.
· The Fourth Book of Maccabees.
· The Story of Ahikar.
· The ones considered Authentic are the ones referred to by the Bibles 66 Authors, who were moved by the Holy Spirit!
· Jesus Himself gives the most powerful Authentication, with His references to all the Prophets on the road to Berea, and particularly to “End Age” events in Matt. 24–25!
· The argument is presented by some scholars, that there are many errors in Scripture. By others that many parts are written after prophetic fulfilment. These are inevitable attacks. Those who are sincere go on to study the Word with their minds and hearts stayed on Christ / Jehovah God, and come to realize that the so-called errors are Satanically inspired and conspired over the centuries, by human and demonic interference.
However, Christ Jesus confirmed the Word (Scripture).
The original Words were given by God to Moses, and they form part of the Old Testament "Bible" of today around the World. These Words were, and are accepted as from Almighty God by Judaism and Christianity, and others. Where Judaism and Christianity part company, and differ, is at the point of the ending of the OT, and its many versions, and the start of what is called "The New Testament" (NT). As is well known, much interference and alteration has taken place as regards the Bible text, both OT, and NT, (see: Bible Text Corruption:).
In the case of the religious Jews, after the death of Ezra, the original "Law" was added to (by interpretation), and the same "tradition" produced "Talmud" (the traditions of the Pharisees) and also the "Mishna" which is "oral law" developed by the Pharisees and Scribes. These later writings were lumped together with the original, and also called "Torah", which some religious Jewish groups say supersedes the Mosaic Law and demand obedience to it, over the original! Some Jews acknowledge this latter comment, and some do not, (because of different religious groups comments and interpretations vary). The Jews major departure from Truth after Ezra, producing the above mentioned, were condemned by Jesus, and also the degraded Temple worship which is illustrated by His oft comments and prophetic condemnation of the Scribes and Pharisees, together with His cleansing of the Temple of traders etc!
The Jews have been temporarily rejected at the present time, "Lo-Ammi", (not My people). Many of their comments made from their writings which do not conform to the original Scriptures are invalid. Therefore their comments on their own interpretation of their future messiah, who they say has not yet come to Earth, are also invalid. The parentage of Jesus, etc. and their comments cannot be taken as authoritative; because as the Apostle Paul said, "blindness in part has happened to Israel", (Romans 11:25). This "blindness" must continue until "the fullness of the Gentiles be come in". A comment by a Melbourne Rabbi in1981 stated, "Jesus was the son of a Roman Centurion", which is the common comment from such. It was noted later that Josephus also says that this story started around the time of Jesus' crucifixion. This erroneous story satisfies the Jewish interpretation for their future messiah, who they say will not be Divine, but of human parentage both of the mother and the father. In that one statement they negate the first prophecy of Jesus in Gen. 3:15, and compound their sin regarding the original Biblical OT given to them. It should be noted also that the many prophecies in the OT, particularly Isaiah, they state do not apply to their messiah, and that Jesus is a "Christian" fabrication to suit the Christian NT! See: Josephus: His Ref. to Jesus, "The Wonder Worker":
It should not be thought from these comments, that Israel is finished in "Divine history". They have a glorious future. However, that will not start until after the second advent of Jesus the Christ, when the promises made to Abraham and the Patriarchs will be fulfilled! Their present condition is a consequence of their rejection of Jesus Messiah, and is temporary. These comments are based on "corporate" Israel, and not individuals, see below.
So, what about the New Testament, and Christianity? Is the Bible the Word of God as is claimed? There are many statements in both Old and New Testament as to the Authorship of the Bible by Almighty God. Some are listed as follows by the Christian Courier.
From the-- "Christian Courier" Investigating Biblical apologetics, religious doctrine, and ethical issues.
All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works” (2Tim 3:16-17; KJV).
Paul’s explicit affirmation is that the Scriptures are “inspired of God”. The term “Scripture” (graphe) is the noun form of the Greek verb grapho, which means “to write”. Since that which was “written” in the Ancient records consisted of words, one must conclude that the very words of the Bible are inspired.
The Old Testament prophets claimed that the words of their messages were from God. David, for instance, declared that the words of his divinely-given communications were words provided by the Holy Spirit (cf. Acts 1:16).
“The Spirit of Jehovah spake by me, And his word was upon my tongue” (2Sam. 23:2).
Compare this with Acts 1:16.
“Brethren, it was needful that the Scripture should be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spake before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was guide to them that took Jesus”.
Jehovah informed Jeremiah that the words of his mouth had been placed there by the Lord Himself.
“Then Jehovah put forth his hand, and touched my mouth; and Jehovah said unto me, Behold, "I have put My words in thy mouth”. (Jer. 1:9).
Christ’s View of Inspiration
Christ endorsed the concept of verbal inspiration when He noted that man does not live by bread alone, but by every “word” that proceeds from the mouth of God (Mt. 4:4). If those words from God are not embodied in the Scriptures, where, pray tell, are they to be found?
Jesus, in contesting certain teachings of the Sadducees (who denied the bodily resurrection of the dead) called attention to the fact that Jehovah once had said to Moses, “I am [not “I was”] the God of Abraham?” (Ex. 3:6). The present tense form of the verb reveals that the Lord was still Abraham’s God, though the patriarch had been dead for four centuries. The Saviour’s argument turns upon the very tense of a verb. That is verbal inspiration!
When Christ asked the Pharisees why David referred to his own offspring (i.e., the Messiah) as “Lord” (see Psa. 110:1; Mt. 22:41-46), they could not answer. The point is – Jesus grounded his argument on a single word, “Lord”, within the Old Testament text.
When certain Jews were offended by the fact that Jesus claimed to be the “Son of God”, the Lord constructed an ad hominem argument designed to highlight their inconsistency. If Christ’s adversaries conceded the appropriateness of certain Old Testament men being designated as “gods” – because they were instruments of divine revelation – surely they ought not to object to the appellation “Son of God” being applied to Him. He had been sent by the Father, and was especially set apart for his magnificent role in human redemption (Jn. 10:34-36). Again, though, the force of the Saviour’s argument depends upon a single word in the Old Testament text – “gods” (Psa. 82:6).
In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus stated that not a single “jot” or “tittle” of the Mosaic law would pass away until all things be accomplished (Mt. 5:18; cf. Lk. 16:17). The “jot” was the smallest letter of the Hebrew alphabet, and the “tittle” was a tiny stroke added to certain letters. The Lord’s affirmation was that it would be easier for Heaven and Earth to pass away than for the smallest portion of the written law to fail before it realized its fulfillment. It has been noted that the use of the terms “jot” and “tittle” can be explained, “only by recognizing that Christ regarded the individual words of Scripture as inspired and authoritative, for the change of a letter might well change the whole word and its meaning” (Charles Pfeiffer, Howard Vos, John Rea, Eds., Wycliffe Bible Dictionary, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999, p. 962).
Paul on Inspiration
Aside from the apostle’s statement to Timothy regarding the divine origin of the words of the Scriptures (as mentioned above – 2Tim. 3:16), there are other indications in the writings of Paul that reflect his confidence in the verbal inspiration of the biblical documents.
In one of his Corinthian letters, the apostle contends that just as one cannot know the content of another person’s mind, unless that person reveals such, even so, no one can know the “things of God” except as those things were conveyed by the Spirit of God, (The 3rd Person), (as made known through inspired communicators of the first century, e.g., the apostles). Paul says, “...which things (i.e., the things of God) also we [inspired men] speak”. Then he adds, “...not in words which man’s wisdom teaches, but which the Spirit teaches...” (1Cor. 2:13). Beyond dispute is the fact that the apostle here declares that the first-century gospel was conveyed in Spirit-given words. No clearer affirmation of verbal inspiration could have been framed.
In a letter to the Church in Thessalonica, Paul thanked God that these brethren had received “the word” of His message, not as “the word of men”, but rather, “as it is in truth, the word of God” (1Thess. 2:13). It is not without significance that the term “word” is used. Everywhere the Scriptures speak of inspired “words”; the concept of mere inspired “thoughts” is alien to the Bible.
During the Ministry of Jesus, He referred frequently to Old Testament passages, especially those referring to Himself as the Suffering Messiah. After His Crucifixion and Resurrection, He again referred to many parts of the OT, and notably, on the Emmaus road, made Himself unrecognised to His grieving disciples as He explained the Law and the Prophets relative to Himself! In so doing, Jesus the Christ of Almighty God, confirmed and authenticated the OT as THE WORD of God, and that He was The Word made flesh (John 1:1)!
Regarding the New Testament, how can we be sure that in the same mode, the NT has the same veracity and endorsement of Christ as the OT? When the Apostle Paul (previously Saul) was confronted and blinded by the Risen Christ on the road to Damascus (Acts 9), the action by Christ was to slow the persecution to death of Christians by Paul, but more importantly, as was told to Ananias (v 15), "he is a chosen vessel unto Me, to bear My Name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel"! Such a profound action as the selection of Paul in this way by Christ Himself, gives the necessary verification and endorsement to the NT, as to the OT! (See: Apostle Paul:).
From the foregoing it is clear that Christ confirmed OT and NT. What has happened since that time, is the constant attack of the enemy of God (Satan) and His people, on the very Word itself! The reasoning is the same as in the garden of Eden, corrupt the Word, confuse the people, and gain control and cause division! That is evident all over the world, and at this particular time (2014) in the world's history, with the events in the mid-east relative to Israel, is very pertinent to the whole world population!
The process of corruption and devious control of God's Word, started very soon after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, and interestingly, by the same Ruling Roman Empire! There had been various attacks by the enemy of God's Word, Gnosticism, Arianism, Montanism, to name but a few, and when Constantine came to power, the process of standardisation and control began.
What is not generally known, is that Ancient Rome, under its various Caesars, adopted the pagan religions of the Nations they conquered, to placate the populous in their new condition of "conquered Nation". Many of the pagan gods that were “adopted”, became “saints” in the new universal Roman religion! This was a very successful policy, and was later merged into the "Christian" Empire under Constantine/Helena. This is one of the origins of "mother and child" worship, as the Roman pagans rebelled, when Isis and her child Horus were to be excluded! Constantine relented, and the result is Mary worship today! At the same time that Constantine and his mother formed “The holy Roman Empire", all debate on the various disputes and views that were current in Christian circles, was stifled, on pain of death! This is one of the reasons why the Roman Church does not encourage Roman Catholics to read the Bible unsupervised, they only allow the "official" view to be expressed! It is also the reason for many of the other official teachings, many of which originate in Ancient Babylon! After the formation of Constantine's Roman Church, and the instigation of "Popery", there followed the various "councils", and "bulls", which give the rules for belief in the Roman Church, which Catholics today must follow! These corruptions had tainted the True message for approx.1200 years, and until the bravery of Martin Luther and others, held sway!
The Roman Church example of deliberate error for purposes of men, see: (Why the Teaching of the Roman Catholic Church is not of God Almighty:) is recently compounded by the issue of a statement denying the truth of certain parts of Scripture, especially Revelation and Genesis, (see: Biblical Truth denied by Roman Church;) instead of fidelity to Almighty God's purpose expressed in His Word. This is still underway in many different Churches, cults, groups, and denominations. The Church of England recently also issued a statement through one of its top Theologians on prime time television, denying that Revelation is to be taken as the future, and stating that it is "historical," see: Bible Text Corruption: Many "Churches" seem on the surface to be authentic, and even preach "Christ crucified," but mix the Salvation message with a concoction of other teaching which does not conform to properly understood Scripture. Most of these mentioned require a form of control of their adherents, and /or a form of work or service over and above the Saving Grace of Our Lord! The True message of Salvation sets people free, renews their minds, and gives purpose. The Truly saved person is by "faith" in that condition, (see Martin Luther), and that faith condition, tends to good works, not the other way around. The insidious corruption and misuse of Scripture for wrong purpose and motive, where consciously undertaken, has the condemnation of Christ, in the words recorded in Matt. 7:22-23!
So, how to believe any of the Bible versions!
Many scholars have undertaken massive Biblical revision work such as William Tyndale, many of them well known in Protestant history, and are attested to in the annuls of the persecutions by the Roman Church! Many of the Bible revisers paid the ultimate price for their "heresy," by being burned alive by the Roman Church! Good translations have been produced, among them the King James Version of 1611. Among many, two Biblical scholars stand out, and the veracity of their work is confirmed by many others. One was English, Dr. E.W. Bullinger, (see: Dr. Bullinger) who was an Hebrew and Greek scholar. The second, Dr. Christian David Ginsburg, (see: Dr. David Ginsburg) a Jew who was accepted by the British Museum and the British Library, as the most authoritative Hebraist of his day in England. Dr. Ginsburg had undertaken extensive work in the OT, and on other of the writings of the Jews, and had become a Christian. Dr. Bullinger had experienced conversion to Christ, as a practicing Church of England Minister, and had a burden to help people understand the Truth of the Bible, as opposed to all the various teaching abounding. When Dr. Ginsburg moved to London from his native Poland, the two became firm colleagues in Dr. Bullinger's vision, and the result is the Companion Bible. In this Bible, the original KJV 1611 text is unaltered, and wide margin is used to show alterations, and additions that have been made to, and from the original copy manuscripts. Some will argue that this is the endeavour of only two sincere men. However, many others have undertaken the same work, many of them very prominent Jewish scholars, and have come to a Saving knowledge of Christ Messiah! (See: Jewish Believers;)
What the work of these undoubtedly accomplished men has exposed, is the alterations to parts of the OT, and in the case of the NT, the exposure of the deliberate corruptions of the Holy Roman Empire. All of these are noted in the Companion Bible, as they occur, see: Ancient Aramaic Manuscripts, Peshitta O and A:
Regarding Jesus, His Crucifixion, His Resurrection, His now awaiting "at the right hand of the Father until His enemies are made His footstool", all of this is fulfilled prophecy, and the other prophecies will also be fulfilled! The major event that knowledgeable Christians are awaiting, is what is known as "the Rapture". Some Christians dispute that there is such an event, however Paul speaks about this in some detail. The writers are of the same opinion as Paul shows, (see: THE RAPTURE of Christians and Overcomers); timing is unsure, but it is linked to the next stage of Israel's events. There will be some time in the probable near future, a peace agreement for Israel, which is in prophecy; see Daniel 9:27. A few years later, Christ will return to Earth, and Israel "will look on him whom they pierced", (Zech.12:10), only at that stage will they realise what they did to Him, and will mourn greatly! At that stage, Israel will turn away from all their falsehood, including the Talmud, the Mishna etc., and will "know again their God"! They will become "Ammi", and the Reign of Christ on Earth will begin "in Power and Great Glory".
Because of the false interpretations/ writings the religious Jews now adhere to, few of their opinions re. the Almighty's actions and plan are valid. Also as shown, there is a "veil over their understanding". Having said that, there are just a few Jews who have accepted Christ, they know themselves as "completed Jews". They are indeed blessed, as they are part of that wondrous entity, "The Lord's Body", (see: Jewish Believers;).
A good Bible translation should be used such as JKV or NKJV; care is needed in this choice, as many modern versions are biased toward wrong teachings (in the view of the writers).
Our own study Bible is the KJV (Companion); as the editors, Dr. David Ginsberg and Dr. E.W. Bullinger were both acclaimed Greek and Hebrew Scholars, and both were/are without equal in their dedication to original manuscript examination and veracity!
Dr. E. W. Bullinger (Hebrew and Greek Scholar, author Companion Bible).